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Independence and Republic: Türkiye

We all know that our republic was formed on 29th of October 1923. As I am writing this we are celebrating the 100th anniversary of it. But how did we get independent? While it is explained in schools why not look at it again to see how it happened. This is the story of how Türkiye was found.

On the morning of 29th of October 1914 Ottoman Ships would have opened fire at the Russian port city of Odessa. The Next day The Ottomans would declare war on Russia joining World War 1. On 18th of March 1915 Allied Powers Ships would have arrived at the coast of Gallipoli hoping to conquer İstanbul by the evening. Yet their efforts would be in vain. After the Land operation started at the 25th of April the allies would do many attacks to Turkish forces. On the dawn of 9 August Colonel Mustafa Kemal who was given emergency powers by Marshall Liman von Sanders would have started a counter-attack against the Allies. After 12 days, the Turks defeated the Allies. On 9th of January 1916 the Allies left Gallipoli. The Ottomans would have fought on many fronts led by the 3 Pasha’s Government. After The Ottomans Lost the war they would have signed the Armistice of Mudros on 30th Of October 1918.

On 13th of November Mustafa Kemal would have entered İstanbul. When he saw the Allied ships that have docked on the Bosphorus he would say: “They shall go as they have come!”. For the next 6 months he would have done meetings to create resistance against the Allied Invasion. On 30th of April 1919 he would have been appointed the Inspector of the 9th Army. On the 15th of May the Greeks would start the Invasion of Anatolia. He would depart from İstanbul in 16th of May. Mustafa Kemal and the other people aboard the Ferry of Bandırma would have arrived on Samsun in 19th of May 1919. 8 days later the Circular of Havza would have been released. Mustafa Kemal would later go to Amasya on 13th of June. On the 22nd

The Circular of Amasya would have been released with the permit of Lieutenant General Kazım Karabekir. It would say that a Congress was bound to happen regarding the eastern cities in Erzurum and all of the country in Sivas. On the 3rd of July Mustafa Kemal arrived to Erzurum. 6 days later he left the army knowing that he was rivaling the İstanbul Government. On the 23rd The Congress of Erzurum started lasting 15 days. The result would say that: “Inside of the national borders the country is a whole that is unbreakable.”. On the 4th Of September the Sivas Congress would start lasting 7 days. The result would sat that: “Land that was part of the country by the armistice of mudros is a whole and is unbreakable.”. Also a new parliament would have been wanted and The Rumelia and Anatolia Müdafaa-i Hukuk(saving of the turkish people) would have been formed. The newly organized group would have mostly pushed out the İstanbul Government from Anatolia. On the 27th the government would have reached out to Mustafa Kemal and he would want the Grand Vizier(Prime Minister) to change. Instead of Damat Ferit Paşa, Ali Rıza Paşa would have been appointed to the position. The Amasya Protocol would have been signed on 22nd of October stating that the parliament would be reopened.

Two Months Later on 27th of December 1919 Mustafa Kemal would have arrived to Ankara so that he can inspect the war better. On the 12th of January 1920 the Parliament would be reopened. On thee 28th the Misak-ı Milli borders would be accepted. On the 3rd of March a pro allied government would be installed. On the night connecting the 15th to the 16th Allied Powers would officially occupy İstanbul. The Parliament would be indefinitely closed on the 18th. On the 11th of April the decision would be made definite. A Religious Decree would have been released on the 18th saying that the Kuva-yi Milliye is heretic. The same day the Kuva-yi İnzibatiye(Pro-Government) forces would have been found. On the 23rd of April The Grand National Assembly would be founded. Mustafa Kemal would been made president the next day unanimously. By the 25th of June The Kuva-yi İnzibatiye would have been dispersed. And on the 22nd of June The Greeks would start the full occupation of Anatolia and Rumelia. On 10th of August the Treaty of Sevres would have been signed by the İstanbul Government.

Mustafa Kemal sent a diplomatic envoy to Moscow on July 1920. After the soviets retook their claims on Eastern Anatolia the counter-offensive would officially start. On the 29th of September Sarıkamış, on the 30th of October Kars would be retaken. On 18th of November the Armenians would capitulate. And finally on the 3rd of December the Treaty of Gümrü would be signed. The borders would be fully decided in the revised Treaty of Kars in the 13th of October 1921. Meanwhile on the western front the Turks would see no success. As some of the Kuva-yi Milliye Armies didn’t want to transition into a Regularized army. With the Gediz offensive failing of 24th of October 1920 Mustafa Kemal would have split the front into two. The Former Kuva-yi Milliye Commanders Demirci Mehmet Efe and Çerkes Ethem would rebel against the army. The Former would be arrested in the 30th of December. The latter would put a stronger resistance he would also fail and alongside a few hundred soldiers he would escape behind greek lines. The first constitution would be released on the 20th of January 1921. Independence would be the people’s, the Country would be officially named Türkiye, and the government would be the National Assembly.

The first major battle on the western front would start in 6th of January 1921 and would end in the 11th with a turkish victory. This would lead to the Conference on London in 21st of February. It would last 18 days but no result other that the recognition of the National Assembly would be made. On the 23rd of March the Second Battle of İnönü would start lasting 9 days and ending with a turkish victory. On the 10th of July the Greeks would start and 10 day long offensive pushing the Turks back to the Sakarya River. After the Turkish Defeat Mustafa Kemal would want full command of the army, his demands would be accepted on the 5th of August. The Tekalif-i Milliye orders would be released calling the citizens to give useful materials(clothing,iron,food etc.) to the army. On the 23rd the Battle of Sakarya would start going on until the 13th of September with the Greek offensive coming to a halt. On the 19th Mustafa Kemal would be given the rank Marshall and he would be named a veteran. Peace with France would be made on the 20th of October. Italians would also leave Anatolia around the same time.

On the Dawn of 26th of August 1922 The Grand Offensive would start. On the 30 with the Başkomutanlık Battle being won by turkey the offensive would end. On the 1st of September Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa would give the famous order: “Armies Your First Target Is the Mediterranean, March!”. On the 2nd the Greek General Trikupis would captured, On the 9th İzmir would be retaken and on the 18th all of Western Anatolia would be retaken. On the 11th of October the Armistice of Mudanya would be signed giving Türkiye Eastern Thracia,The Straits and İstanbul back. On the 1st of November the Sultanate would be abolished. On the 20th of November the Lausanne Peace Talks would start. It would cut in the 4th of February 1923 because of disagreements. Meanwhile The Ecomonic Congress of İzmir would start on the 17th of February ending on the 4th of March. On the 29th April the peace talks would restart and the Peace Treaty of Lausanne would be signed in 24th of July. On the 13th of October the capital would be moved to Ankara. On the 28th he would call his friends and some others to Çankaya and he would say that: “Sirs Tomorrow we will be establishing the Republic!”. On the 29th of October After a long day of meetings in 8.30 P.M. The Republic Would Established with people crying out: “Long live the Republic!”.

And here we are today on the 100th Anniversary. Even While Writing This I felt the great achievement and the hardships in my body. As The Great Leader, The Father of the Turks Said: “The strength that you need, is in the noble blood flowing in your veins!”. Let us remember and celebrate this great day.

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